Where is Pim-3 expressed in the human body?
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Introduction - The Human Protein Atlas
What can an endoscopy show you? - Here, we report for the first time that Pim-3 is highly expressed at mRNA and protein levels in endothelial cells (ECs). We found that Pim-3 is concentrated at the cellular lamellipodia and . PIM3. General description of the gene and the encoded protein (s) using information from HGNC and Ensembl, as well as predictions made by the Human Protein Atlas project. Official gene . In the mouse embryo, Pim-3 gene expression is detected in the liver, kidneys, lungs, thymus, central nervous system, periphery of the pancreas, secretory epithelium of the . Does TCS give bonuses to its employees around the world?
Pim-3 is expressed in endothelial cells and promotes vascular tube formation
exemplo de trabalho academico unopar - Pim-3, a proto-oncogene with serine/threonine kinase activity, is aberrantly expressed in malignant lesions, but not in normal pancreatic tissues. To assess the role of Pim-3 in human . Objective: To investigate the role of Pim-3 abnomal expression in development of acute myeloid leukemia. Methods: Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of Pim-3 in . Pim-3 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase Predicted location i All transcripts of all genes have been analyzed regarding the location(s) of corresponding protein based on prediction . exemplo de texto dissertativo argumentativo nota 1000
Pathophysiological roles of Pim-3 kinase in pancreatic cancer development and progression - PMC
como fazer citações de artigos da internet - Pim-3 mRNA is detected in several normal human tissues, including the heart, brain, lung, kidney, spleen, placenta, skeletal muscle, and peripheral blood leukocytes, but not in the colon. Pim proteins regulate both apoptosis and cellular metabolism by phosphorylating their substrates. Here, we report for the first time that Pim-3 is highly expressed at mRNA and protein levels . We previously observed that Pim-3, a member of the proto-oncogene Pim family that expresses serine/threonine kinase activity, was aberrantly expressed in human and mouse hepatomas . Por que a arte da fotografia pode ser aprendida em qualquer idade?
PIM3 protein expression summary - The Human Protein Atlas
Qual a importância da dança para os gregos? - Our previous northern blotting analysis failed to detect Pim-3 mRNA in normal human endoderm-derived organs including liver, pancreas and colon. Given that Pim-3 can prevent apoptosis, . PIM3. General description of the gene and the encoded protein (s) using information from HGNC and Ensembl, as well as predictions made by the Human Protein Atlas project. Official gene . Objective: To investigate the role of Pim-3 abnomal expression in development of acute myeloid leukemia. Methods: Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of Pim-3 in . É possível fazer faculdade de enfermagem a distância?
Where is Pim-3 expressed in the human body?
Qual a importância de produzir uma boa avaliação de resultados? - · In the mouse embryo, Pim-3 gene expression is detected in the liver, kidneys, lungs, thymus, central nervous system, periphery of the pancreas, secretory epithelium . We previously reported that Pim-3, a member of the proto-oncogene Pim family that encodes serine/threonine kinases, is aberrantly expressed in human pancreatic cancer lesions. In the . · In line with these observations, we showed that Pim-3 was selectively expressed in human and mouse hepatocellular carcinomas but not in normal liver tissue. Moreover, the . Qual é o período de folga do profissional de enfermagem?
Tumor-associated neovasculature formation is regulated by various angiogenic factors. Notably, vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF has an important role in tumor-associated vasculature formation[ 78 , 79 ]. Although most pancreatic cancer tissues are hypovascular, elevated levels of VEGF are sometimes detected in pancreatic cancer cells[ 80 ]. Earlier studies have demonstrated that Pim-3 overexpression was responsible for increased VEGF expression and the growth of pancreatic cancer in vivo in an orthotopic nude mouse model[ 81 ]. The lack of any vascular phenotypes in Pimdeficient mice indicates that Pim-3 is dispensable for normal vasculature formation. However, given distinctive gene expression profiles of tumor-associated ECs[ 82 ], Pim-3 may have distinct roles in tumor-associated endothelial cells.
It is obvious from our discussions that aberrant activation and expression of Pim kinases are associated with various types of cancer. Enhanced expression of Pim-2 kinase is detected in hematologic malignancies and prostate cancer. Additionally, increased Pim-1 expression is observed in pancreatic cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma[ 83 - 85 ], bladder carcinoma[ 86 ], and liposarcoma[ 87 ]. In contrast, Pim-3 expression is selectively overexpressed in malignant lesions of endoderm-derived organs such as the liver[ 13 ], pancreas[ 5 ], colon[ 29 ], and stomach[ 30 ]. Furthermore, a lack of apparent phenotypes in TKO mice suggests that Pim kinases are dispensable for the maintenance of normal functions of vital organs.
Collectively, Pim kinases can be good candidate molecules for targeted cancer therapy. Examples of Pim-1 inhibitors include an anti-Pim-1 antibody and a cell penetrating peptide, both of which suppresses tumor growth in vivo in xenograft mouse models transplanted with human cancer cell lines[ 88 , 89 ]. The crystal structure of Pim-3 has not yet been reported. However, the crystal structure of Pim-1 and Pim-2 has been resolved, which revealed the presence of a unique hinge region that connects the two lobes of the protein kinase domain[ 18 - 20 ]. As a result, ATP binds to Pim kinases in a fundamentally different way from how it binds to other protein kinases[ 18 , 19 ].
Several independent research groups have developed small-molecule inhibitors against Pim kinases, including flavonol quercetagetin[ 90 ], imidazole[1,2-b]pyridazines[ 91 , 92 ], benzylidene-thiazolidine-2,4-dione[ 93 - 95 ], 3,5-disubstituted indole derivatives[ 96 ], pyrazolo[3,4-g]quinoxaline derivatives[ 97 ], 1,6-dihydropyrazolo[4,3-c]carbazoles and 3,6-dihydropyrazolo[3,4-c]carbazole derivatives[ 98 ], and pyrrolo[2,3-a]carbazole and pyrrolo[2,3-g]indazole derivatives[ 99 - ].
Among them, 1,6-dihydropyrazolo[4,3-c]carbazoles, 3,6-dihydropyrazolo[3,4-c]carbazoles, and pyrrolo[2,3-g]indazoles can inhibit Pim-3 activities[ 98 , ]. In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that derivatives of stemoamide synthetic intermediates can inhibit Pim-3 as well as Pim-1 and Pim-2 activities, and can reduce tumor growth in vivo in mouse xenograft models using human pancreatic cancer cell line without causing major adverse side-effects[ , ].
The substrates preferred by Pim-1 and Pim-3[ 19 ] are very similar in identity. Therefore, designing isoform specific inhibitors that will differentiate and preferentially bind to one Pim member over the other is extremely challenging. Indeed, pyrrolo[2,3- a ]carbazole has low nanomolar binding affinity for Pim-1 and Pim-3 kinases, but only weakly inhibits Pim-2 IC 50 for Pim-1, 0.
Similar pharmacological observations have been recorded with phenanthrene derivatives[ 77 ]. However, it will be interesting to find out if an inhibitor which specifically inhibits the action of one Pim member will provide any additional advantage over a multi-Pim kinase inhibitor. Akt can phosphorylate a similar set of substrates to Pim kinases, such as BAD, thereby initiating the proliferation of cancer cells[ ]. Akt is aberrantly activated in various types of tumors, and Akt inhibitors have been extensively investigated[ 72 ]. Akt is a key signaling protein and Akt-2 is directly involved in the insulin receptor signaling pathway.
Consequently, the genetic disruption of Akt kinase genes results in severe phenotypic changes, such as neonatal mortality, severe growth retardation, and reduced brain size[ - ], and Akt-2 inhibition induces severe hyperglycemia[ ]. The use of Akt inhibitors for anti-cancer treatment is seriously limited because of these shortcomings. In contrast, Pim kinases, including Pim-3, are not involved in the insulin receptor signaling pathway, and the inhibition of Pim kinases hardly shows any detrimental effects on normal glucose metabolism. Thus, Pim kinases are more effective molecular targets than Akt for targeted cancer therapy, and are particularly useful for treating pancreatic cancer, which is frequently complicated by hyperglycemia.
Pim-3 kinase is aberrantly expressed in malignant lesions but not in normal tissues of endoderm-derived organs, such as the liver, pancreas, colon, and stomach[ 5 , 13 , 29 , 30 ], and contributes to tumorigenesis by inhibiting apoptosis of tumor cells and promoting cell cycle progression. Moreover, genetic deficiency of the Pim-3 gene does not result in apparent changes in phenotypes, suggesting that Pim-3 may be physiologically dispensable.
Unlike Akt kinases[ 72 ], Pim kinases are not involved in the insulin receptor signaling pathway; therefore, the inhibition of Pim kinases has very little influence on glucose metabolism. Indeed, inhibition of Pim-3 kinase activities slows the growth or even causes regression of pancreatic tumors in mice without causing hypoglycemia[ 66 , , ]. Since Pim-3 kinase is constitutively active once it is expressed aberrantly, inhibition of Pim-3 can be used for inhibiting cancer progression. Furthermore, there is accumulating evidence to suggest that Pim-3 plays a vital role in the interaction between tumor cells and their surrounding stroma.
Further studies on these aspects will unravel the novel pathophysiological role of Pim Nevertheless, strategies to inhibit Pim-3 activity warrant intensive investigation in order to discover and develop new targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to Dr. World J Gastroenterol. Published online Jul Ying-Yi Li and Naofumi Mukaida. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Author contributions: Li YY contributed to manuscript writing and final revision of the article; Mukaida N contributed to overall design, manuscript writing, and final revision of the article. All rights reserved. Open in a separate window.
Figure 1. Table 1 Increased expression patterns for Pim kinases in various types of malignancies. ND: Not determined. Figure 2. Figure 3. Roles of Pim-3 in tumor microenvironments One of the basic characteristic features of tumor tissues is the abundance of newly formed vasculature for the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the growing tumor cells, as well as the elimination of metabolic wastes and carbon dioxide. References 1. Cancer statistics, CA Cancer J Clin. Pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res. Inhibition of oncogenic Pim-3 kinase modulates transformed growth and chemosensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine.
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PLoS One. Crystal structures of proto-oncogene kinase Pim1: a target of aberrant somatic hypermutations in diffuse large cell lymphoma. J Mol Biol. Pim-3 is expressed in endothelial cells and promotes vascular tube formation. J Cell Physiol. Genomics of the periinfarction cortex after focal cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. Developmental expression of pim kinases suggests functions also outside of the hematopoietic system. Mol Cell Biol. Identification of differentially expressed genes in metastatic and non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by suppression subtractive hybridization. Cell Oncol. Aberrant Pim-3 expression is involved in gastric adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence and cancer progression.
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Cell Growth Differ. J Cell Biol. Protein phosphatase 2A regulates the stability of Pim protein kinases. The proto-oncogene Pim-1 is a target of miRa. Intravenous gene therapy with PIM-1 via a cardiotropic viral vector halts the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy through promotion of prosurvival signaling. Circ Res. Hypoxia-inducible mir regulates normoxic gene expression involved in tumor initiation. Mol Cell. A novel regulatory mechanism of Pim-3 kinase stability and its involvement in pancreatic cancer progression. Mol Cancer Res. Pim-1 kinase promotes inactivation of the pro-apoptotic Bad protein by phosphorylating it on the Ser gatekeeper site. FEBS Lett. Pim-3 protects against hepatic failure in D-galactosamine D-GalN -sensitized rats. Eur J Clin Invest.
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Accelerated hepatocellular carcinoma development in mice expressing the Pim-3 transgene selectively in the liver. Mice deficient for all PIM kinases display reduced body size and impaired responses to hematopoietic growth factors. The Pim protein kinases regulate energy metabolism and cell growth. PIM1-dependent phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 is required for MYC-dependent transcriptional activation and oncogenic transformation. Nat Cell Biol.
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Endothelium-microenvironment interactions in the developing embryo and in the adult. Dev Cell. Ferrara N, Kerbel RS. Angiogenesis as a therapeutic target. High expression of vascular endothelial growth factor predicts early recurrence and poor prognosis after curative resection for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Pim-3 promotes the growth of human pancreatic cancer in the orthotopic nude mouse model through vascular endothelium growth factor.
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Quais são os graus e diplomas do Ensino Superior de Portugal? - We previously observed that Pim-3, a member of the proto-oncogene Pim family that expresses serine/threonine kinase activity, was aberrantly expressed in human and mouse hepatomas . The Pim-3 expression levels of non-remission patients after chemotherapy were all significantly lower than those of the remission patients after chemotherapy (P. · In the mouse embryo, Pim-3 gene expression is detected in the liver, kidneys, lungs, thymus, central nervous system, periphery of the pancreas, secretory epithelium . modelo de pré projeto monografia
Pim-3 promotes human pancreatic cancer growth by regulating tumor vasculogenesis
Quais foram as principais obras do Renascimento? - · Pim-3 mRNA is detected in several normal human tissues, including the heart, brain, lung, kidney, spleen, placenta, skeletal muscle, and peripheral blood leukocytes, but not . · Here, we report for the first time that Pim‐3 is highly expressed at mRNA and protein levels in endothelial cells (ECs). We found that Pim‐3 is concentrated at the cellular . · We demonstrated that Pim—3 was highly expressed in human glioblastoma cell lines. We also found that knockdown of Pim—3 by specific shRNA slowed decreased . Qual é o papel do médico em uma equipe de Atenção Primária à saúde?
History of Art | Art and the Human Body
Como a leitura se torna cada vez mais fácil e agradável? - · We previously observed that Pim-3, a member of the proto-oncogene Pim family that expresses serine/threonine kinase activity, was aberrantly expressed in human and . Given that Pim-3 can prevent apoptosis, we assumed that Pim-3 might be aberrantly expressed in malignant lesions of the colon and might contribute to colon carcinogenesis. To address this . WebThe difference of the Pim-3 gene expression in bone marrows among the 3 groups was also compared. Results: According to the RT-PCR detection results, the Pim-3 expression . Is public display of affection (PDAs) taking over the world?
Microbes and the human body | What is microbiology? | Microbiology Society
Qual a base de cálculo para os descontos no imposto de renda? - Web07/07/ · In the mouse embryo, Pim-3 gene expression is detected in the liver, kidneys, lungs, thymus, central nervous system, periphery of the pancreas, secretory . Web03/07/ · We previously observed that Pim-3, a member of the proto-oncogene Pim family that expresses serine/threonine kinase activity, was aberrantly expressed in . Web01/07/ · Here, we report for the first time that Pim‐3 is highly expressed at mRNA and protein levels in endothelial cells (ECs). We found that Pim‐3 is concentrated at the . Qual é o papel do contador na saúde financeira de uma empresa?
Human Body Anatomy - Structure of the Human Body & Parts
Quais são os bens de consumo? - Web01/07/ · We previously observed that Pim-3, a member of the proto-oncogene Pim family that expresses serine/threonine kinase activity, was aberrantly expressed in . Web01/12/ · Pim-3 is also expressed in endothelial cells, where it promotes vascular tube formation . Additionally, Pim-3 presents a high sequence identity with Pim-1, even in . Web25/04/ · We previously identified Pim-3, a proto-oncogene with serine/threonine kinase activity, as the gene selectively expressed in human pancreatic cancer tissues, but not . Qual a importância da ludicidade em sala de aula?
Human microbiome: 39 trillion microbes and bacteria that call us home | BBC Science Focus Magazine
Por que é importante ensinar valores humanos na Escola? - Microbes and the human body The surfaces of the human body inside and out, for example the skin, mouth and the intestines, are covered in millions of individual micro-organisms that don’t do us any harm. In fact they help to protect us from becoming infected with harmful microbes. They are known as the normal body flora. The aim of the respiratory system is to absorb oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the body. The primary organ of the respiratory system is a pair of lungs. As we breathe, lungs exchange glasses thus carrying out the process of respiration. Respiratory System and circulatory system work together to pump oxygenated blood throughout the body. · The German poet Heine () wrote this short love poem about the beauty of the human body. The last line is tinged with bitterness and sadness, with the poet revealing his fear that this ‘body’ he loves will betray him. 5. Walt Whitman, ‘ I Sing the Body Electric ’. I sing the body electric. dissertação expositiva
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